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For many centuries it was accepted that civilization began with the Greeks and Romans. During the last two hundred years, however, archaeological discoveries in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Crete, Syria, Anatolia, Iran, and the Indus Valley have revealed that rich cultures existed in these regions some two thousand years before the Greco-Roman era. In this fascinating work, H.W.F Saggs presents a wide-ranging survey of the more notable achievements of these societies, showing how much the ancient peoples of the Near and Middle East have influenced the patterns of our daily lives.
In text and photographs, describes twenty-five ancient architectural wonders, including the Great Wall of China, the Kukulcán Pyramid in Mexico, and the Avenue of Lions in Greece.
Kimberly B. Stratton investigates the cultural and ideological motivations behind early imaginings of the magician, the sorceress, and the witch in the ancient world. Accusations of magic could carry the death penalty or, at the very least, marginalize the person or group they targeted. But Stratton moves beyond the popular view of these accusations as mere slander. In her view, representations and accusations of sorcery mirror the complex struggle of ancient societies to define authority, legitimacy, and Otherness.
This book, long recognized as the most readable and authoritative introduction to the region’s pre-columbian civilizations, has now been completely revised for its seventh edition. Spectacular new discoveries have thrown more light on the Olmec culture, Mexicos earliest civilization. At the great city of Teotihuacan, recent investigations in the earliest monumental pyramid indicate the antiquity of certain sacrificial practices and the symbolism of the pyramid. The Huastec region of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico gets a much fuller account than in previous editions and further discoveries in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan have allowed us to refine our understanding of the history and symbolism of its sacred precinct.
To say the Punic Wars (264-146 BC) were a turning point in world history is a vast understatement.
This bloody and protracted conflict pitted two flourishing Mediterranean powers against one another, leaving one an unrivalled giant and the other a literal pile of ash. To later observers, a collision between these civilizations seemed inevitable and yet to the Romans and Carthaginians at the time hostilities first erupted seemingly out of nowhere, with what were expected to be inconsequential results.
Mastering the West offers a thoroughly engrossing narrative of this century of battle in the western Mediterranean, while treating a full range of themes: the antagonists’ military, naval, economic, and demographic resources; the political structures of both republics; and the postwar impact of the conflicts on the participants and victims. The narrative also investigates questions of leadership and the contributions and mistakes of leaders like Hannibal, Fabius the Delayer, Scipio Africanus, Masinissa, and Scipio Aemilianus. Dexter Hoyos, a leading expert of the period, treats the two great powers evenly, without neglecting the important roles played by Syracuse, Macedon, and especially Numidia.
Written with verve in a clear, accessible style, with a range of illustrations and newly-commissioned maps, Mastering the West will be the most reliable and engaging narrative of this pivotal era in ancient history.
The great Biblical flood so described in Genesis has long been a subject of fascination and speculation. In the 19th century the English archbishop James Ussher established it as having happened in the year 2348 B.C., calculating what was then taken as the age of the earth and working backward through the entire series of Biblical "begats." Proof of the flood, which is an element of so many creation myths, began in earnest when archaeology started connecting physical evidence with Biblical story.
This volume presents, for the first time in English, the approaches to Leo Strauss being pursued by European scholars in Spain, Italy, and Germany. Whereas the traditions of Strauss interpretation have, until recently, focused on issues of interest to political science and, to a lesser extent, religious studies, this collection makes a powerful contribution to the recent philosophical consideration of Strauss. Each essay treats a unique thread emerging from the tapestry of Straussian thought, illustrating Strauss s thinking on the reading of ancient texts and on the relationship between philosophy and politics.
This volume examines prehistoric copper mining in Europe, from the first use of the metal eight thousand years ago in the Balkans to its widespread adoption during the Bronze Age. The history of research is examined, as is the survival of this mining archaeology in different geological settings. There is information on the technological processes of mineral prospecting, ore extraction, and metal production, as well as the logistics and organization of this activity and its environmental impact. The analysis is broadened to consider the economic and societal context of prehistoric copper mining and the nature of the distinctive communities involved.T
Written as a textbook with an online laboratory manual for students and adopting faculties, this work is intended for non-science majors / liberal studies science courses and will cover a range of scientific principles of food, cooking and the science of taste and smell. Chapters include: The Science of Food and Nutrition of Macromolecules; Science of Taste and Smell; Milk, Cream, and Ice Cream, Metabolism and Fermentation; Cheese, Yogurt, and Sour Cream; Browning; Fruits and Vegetables; Meat, Fish, and Eggs; Dough, Cakes, and Pastry; Chilies, Herbs, and Spices; Beer and Wine; and Chocolate, Candy and Other Treats.
Egyptian bronze statuary has proven particularly intractable to chronological investigations. This study exploits clues offered by bronze royal statuettes to make identifications or stylistic assignments. A fuller understanding of the artistic milieu and role of small royal bronze statuary results.
Ranging from Egypt’s predynastic cultures to the suicides of Cleopatra and Marc Antony in 30 BCE, Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Third Edition includes more than 2,300 detailed entries, each thoroughly reviewed and updated to reflect recent advances in scholarship.
In addition to the latest discoveries and excavations, new front and back matter items have been added to this comprehensive resource, including an appendix on the study of ancient Egypt, a glossary, a historical overview section, and a geographical overview section.
Coverage includes Administration; Alexander [III] the Great; Alexandria; Cleopatra VII; Dier el-Bahri; Faiyum; Family; Hierakonpolis; Tut’ankhamun; Valley of the Kings; and more.
"The Oxford history of the classical world" aims to present the general reader with a view of the Graeco-Roman world, its history and achievements. This volume is concerned with the period from the 8th to the 1st century BC and deals with the Hellenization of the Middle East by the monarchies established in the area conquered by Alexander the Great.
The crucial role that the Ukrainian ‘branch’ of the Tripolye culture played in shaping the historical formation of the Ukraine, and indeed that of Europe, is still not fully understood or appreciated. Although we are mostly aware of its finely-crafted and decorated pottery, along with the highly-discussed house architecture and huge settlements (known as ‘giant-settlements’), we often fail to connect the various dots in order to understand the different aspects of its development, from the very first eastward migrations, to the scission into two separate local groups (eastern and western Tripolye culture), the formation of the so-called giant-settlements, and finally to its inexorable decline after more than 2000 years of prosperous existence.
Ashes, Images, and Memories argues that the institution of public burial for the war dead and images of the deceased in civic and sacred spaces fundamentally changed how people conceived of military casualties in fifth-century Athens. In a period characterized by war and the threat of civil strife, the nascent democracy claimed the fallen for the city and commemorated them with rituals and images that shaped a civic ideology of struggle and self-sacrifice on behalf of a unified community. While most studies of Athenian public burial have focused on discrete aspects of the institution, such as the funeral oration, this book broadens the scope.
In villages and towns across Spain and its former New World colonies, local performers stage mock battles between Spanish Christians and Moors or Aztecs that range from brief sword dances to massive street theatre lasting several days. The performances officially celebrate the triumph of Spanish Catholicism over its enemies. Such an explanation does not, however, account for the tradition’s persistence for more than five hundred years nor for its widespread diffusion. In this perceptive book, Max Harris seeks to understand the ‘puzzling and enduring passion’ of both Mexicans and Spaniards for festivals of moros y cristianos.H
"On the art of medicine," or "de Arte," embodies as perhaps no other ancient text the full flower of the sophistic movement of the fifth century BCE. It is a rhetorical epideixis in which forensic oratory, philosophy, and medicine are woven into an ambitious display of sophistic polymathy. Unlike much previous scholarship, however, this book does not dismiss "de Arte" as merely rhetorical. Its analysis of the author s philosophical and medical views reveals that he strove to promote a consistent and rationally grounded system capable of responding to theoretical and practical criticisms levied by those who would deny that there was such a thing as medicine or techn at all.&
The Roman empire was a success story. The achievement of such success required a broad consensus in social norms, in ethics and aesthetics to strengthen a distinct way of life. At the same time, however, there were necessarily deviants and deviations from the norm: enemies of the Roman order. Dissidents emerged across societal groupings – from philosophers to the nobility to magicians. Their activities involved active treason, latent disaffection, brigandage, organized protest and cultural deviation.
The humanists of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries took a passionate interest in Livy s “History of Rome.” No one studied the text more intensively than the Swiss scholar Henricus Glareanus, who not only held lectures on different Roman historians at the University of Freiburg im Breisgau, but also drew up chronological tables for ancient history, which were printed several times in Basle, sometimes together with Livy s “History.” Glareanus annotated his personal copy of the chronological tables and invited his students to copy his marginal notes into their own copies of the book.
This volume presents the proceedings of the fifth workshop of the international thematic network Impact of Empire, which concentrates on the history of the Roman Empire, c. 200 B.C. – A.D. 476, and, under the chairmanship of Lukas de Blois and Olivier Hekster (University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands), brings together ancient historians, archaeologists, classicists and specialists on Roman law from some 28 European and North American universities. The fifth volume focuses on the impact of imperial Rome on religions, ritual and religious life in the Roman Empire.
Graeco-Roman religion in its classic form was polytheistic; on the other hand, monotheistic ideas enjoyed wide currency in ancient philosophy. This contradiction provides a challenge for our understanding of ancient pagan religion. Certain forms of cult activity, including acclamations of ‘one god’ and the worship of theos hypsistos, the highest god, have sometimes been interpreted as evidence for pagan monotheism. This book discusses pagan monotheism in its philosophical and intellectual context, traces the evolution of new religious ideas in the time of the Roman empire, and evaluates the usefulness of the term ‘monotheism’ as a way of understanding these developments in later antiquity outside the context of Judaism and Christianity.
The history of the Ancient Near East covers a huge chronological frame, from the first pictographic texts of the late 4th millennium to the conquest of Alexander the Great in 333 BC. During these millennia, different societies developed in a changing landscape where sheep (and their wool) always played an important economic role. The 22 papers presented here explore the place of wool in the ancient economy of the region, where large-scale textile production began during the second half of the 3rd millennium.
This book presents new insights into the dynamics of the relationship between governors and provincial subjects in the Later Roman Empire, with a focus on the provincial perspective. Based on literary, legal, epigraphic and artistic materials the author deals with questions such as how provincials communicated their needs to governors, how they expressed both their favorable and critical opinions of governors behavior, and how they rewarded good governors. Provincial expectations, a continuous dialogue, interdependence, reciprocity, and ceremonial routine play key roles in this study that not only leads to a better understanding of Late Roman provincial administration, but also of the successful functioning of an empire as large as that of Rome.&
Paul Erdkamp illustrates how entitlement to food in Roman society was dependent on relations with the emperor, his representatives and the landowning aristocracy, and local rulers controlling the towns and hinterlands. He assesses the response of the Roman authorities to weaknesses in the grain market and looks at the implications of the failure of local harvests. By examining the subject from a contemporary perspective, this book will appeal not only to historians of ancient economies, but to all concerned with the economy of grain markets, a subject which still resonates today.
Richard Finn OP examines the significance of almsgiving in Churches of the later empire for the identity and status of the bishops, ascetics, and lay people who undertook practices which differed in kind and context from the almsgiving practiced by pagans. It reveals how the almsgiving crucial in constructing the bishop’s standing was a co-operative task where honor was shared but which exposed the bishop to criticism and rivalry. Finn details how practices gained meaning from a discourse which recast traditional virtues of generosity and justice to render almsgiving a benefaction and source of honor, and how this pattern of thought and conduct interacted with classical patterns to generate controversy.
Showing 1–24 of 90 results