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Covering the colonial Empire (including West Indies, India, Singapore, West Africa and East Africa), this book is a detailed revisionist history of the British imperial manipulations of colonial currency systems to facilitate the rise of sterling to world supremacy via the gold standard, and to slow its eventual decline after World War I. Official internal correspondence is used to show that Britain typically acted against the advice of colonial commercial interests, colonial governments, and even officials in the Colonial Office, in order to replace international currencies (including gold and sterling itself), with localised silver currencies.
This handbook presents a comprehensive survey of the textual archaeological and art historical evidence for this Middle Nile Region – Kingdom of Kush. Basing itself upon the evidence and scholarly literature, this work discusses the emergence of the native state of Kush (after the Pharaonic domination in the 11th century BC), the rule of the Kings of Kush in Egpyt (c. 760-656 BC) and the intellectual foundations and political history of the Kingdom in the Napatan (7th and 3rd centuries BC) and Meroitic (3rd century BC – 4th century) periods.
The essays in this volume concentrate on imperial conflict. Until recently, most historians of empire have concerned themselves with economic issues. More recently, scholarship has turned to social and cultural aspects of Empire. The role of the military, however, continues to be largely ignored. Historians have traditionally viewed the military as an arm of the civil power, an institution which did not create policy but faithfully obeyed the directives given to it. These essays show that indeed the military thought for itself: its officers made policy, introduced new strategies and tactics, and utilized the services of local settlers and indigenes to pursue the interests of empire, and the rank and file informed ideas in Great Britain concerning Africa and Africans.
In 1960, apartheid’s planners created the ‘Indian’ township of Chatsworth, evicting people from established neighborhoods around Durban and forcibly settling them into the grid of a modern racial ghetto. Making a home within this architecture of exclusion, along streets without names, tens of thousands of new residents began building new lives and new communities, developing an urban space with a unique cultural vibrancy born of creativity and economic struggle. With the dismantling of ‘Group Areas’ legislation from 1990, and within South Africa’s continually changing political landscape, the Chatsworth township has witnessed innovations of livelihood, shifting boundaries of identity, and protracted social challenges.
In an effort to restore its world-power status after the humiliation of defeat and occupation, France was eager to maintain its overseas empire at the end of the Second World War. Yet just fifteen years later France had decolonized, and by 1960 only a few small island territories remained under French control.
This well-researched resource will enhance and support the study of this vast continent. Three chronological volumes cover up to the 19th century. Books are arranged alphabetically with entries ranging from one paragraph to two pages in length. They discuss locations, countries, individuals, peoples, concepts, events, plants, and animals, and include many cultural references. Articles for certain topics can be found in each volume. For example, there are separate entries of varying length in all three volumes for "Guinea" and "Hutu.&
This new Handbook examines the issues, challenges, and debates surrounding the problem of security in Africa.Africa is home to most of the world’s current conflicts, and security is a key issue. However, African security can only be understood by employing different levels of analysis: the individual (human security), the state (national/state security), and the region (regional/international security). Each of these levels provides analytical tools for understanding what could be called the "African security predicament" and these debates are animated by the "new security" issues: immigration, small arms transfers, gangs and domestic crime, HIV/AIDS, transnational crime, poverty, and environmental degradation.
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