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Until now, archaeological and historical studies of Mesoamerican plazas have been scarce compared to studies of the surrounding monumental architecture such as pyramidal temples and palaces. Many scholars have assumed that ancient Mesoamericans invested their labor, wealth, and symbolic value in pyramids and other prominent buildings, viewing plazas as by-products of these buildings. Even when researchers have recognized the potential significance of plazas, they have thought that plazas as vacant spaces could offer few clues about their cultural and political roles.
Heritage and Social Media explores how social media reframes our understanding and experience of heritage. Through the idea of ‘participatory culture’ the book begins to examine how social media can be brought to bear on the encounter with heritage and on the socially produced meanings and values that individuals and communities ascribe to it.To highlight the specific changes produced by social media, the book is structured around three major themes: Social Practice. New ways of understanding and experiencing heritage are emerging as a result of novel social practices of collection, representation, and communication enabled and promoted by social media.
Ireland’s oldest traditions excavated via archaeological, genetic, and linguistic research, culminating in atruly groundbreaking publicationFollowing his account of Irish origins drawing on archaeology, genetics, and linguistics, J. P. Mallory returns to the subject to investigate what he calls the Irish Dreamtime: the native Irish retelling of their own origins, as related by medieval manuscripts. He explores the historical backbone of this version of the earliest history of Ireland, which places apparently mythological events on a concrete timeline of invasions, colonization, and royal reigns that extends even further back in time than the history of classical Greece.
In this book an internationally distinguished roster of contributors considers the state of the art of the discipline of archaeology at the turn of the 21st century and charts an ambitious agenda for the future. The chapters address a wide range of topics including, paradigms, practice, and relevance of the discipline; paleoanthropology;
The crucial role that the Ukrainian ‘branch’ of the Tripolye culture played in shaping the historical formation of the Ukraine, and indeed that of Europe, is still not fully understood or appreciated. Although we are mostly aware of its finely-crafted and decorated pottery, along with the highly-discussed house architecture and huge settlements (known as ‘giant-settlements’), we often fail to connect the various dots in order to understand the different aspects of its development, from the very first eastward migrations, to the scission into two separate local groups (eastern and western Tripolye culture), the formation of the so-called giant-settlements, and finally to its inexorable decline after more than 2000 years of prosperous existence.
Editors: Iovita, Radu, Sano, Katsuhiro (Eds.)Recognizes and characterizes stone age weapons using controlled and replicative experimentsCasts new light on the role of weapon technologies in shaping the course of human evolutionMaximizes readers insights into archaeological perspectives from a variety of time periods and from all five continents with a large assortment of new analytical and experimental studiesThe objective of this volume is to showcase the contemporary state of research on recognizing and evaluating the performance of stone age weapons from a variety of viewpoints, including investigating their cognitive and evolutionary significance.
Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed within them. The book engages with the meeting point between these two perspectives. For although archaeologists must deal with the presence and absence of physicality as a discipline, which studies humans through things, to understand humans they must also address the performances, as well as temporal and affective impacts, of these material remains.
Until fairly recently, archaeological research has been directed primarily toward the centers of societies rather than their perimeters. Yet frontiers and borders, precisely because they are peripheral, promote interaction between people of different polities and cultures, with a wide range of potential outcomes. Much work has begun to redress this disparity of focus.Drawing on contemporary and ethnographic accounts, historical data and archaeological evidence, this book covers more than 30 years of research on boundaries, borders and frontiers, beginning with The Northern Mycenaean Border in Thessaly in 1983.
Richard Hingley here asks the questions: What is Romanization? Was Rome the first global culture?Romanization has been represented as a simple progression from barbarism to civilization. Roman forms in architecture, coinage, language and literature came to dominate the world from Britain to Syria. Hingley argues for a more complex and nuanced view in which Roman models provided the means for provincial elites to articulate their own concerns. Inhabitants of the Roman provinces were able to develop identities they never knew they had until Rome gave them the language to express them.H
First Civilizations is the second edition of a popular student text first published in 1996 in Montreal by Les Editions Champ Fleury. This much updated and expanded edition provides an introductory overview of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. It was conceived primarily for students who have little or no knowledge of ancient history or archaeology.The book begins with the role of history and archaeology in understanding the past, and continues with the origins of agriculture and the formation of the Sumerian city-states in Mesopotamia.
In this long-awaited second edition, Susan Whitfield broadens her exploration of the Silk Road and expands her rich and varied portrait of life along the great pre-modern trade routes of Eurasia. This new edition is comprehensively updated to support further understanding of themes relevant to global and comparative history and remains the only history of the Silk Road to reconstruct the route through the personal experiences of travelers.In the first 1,000 years after Christ, merchants, missionaries, monks, mendicants, and military men traveled the vast network of Central Asian tracks that became known as the Silk Road.
Committed to the scientific investigation of human antiquity, Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology uses interesting archaeological hoaxes, myths, and mysteries to show how we can use science to learn things about the past. By placing wildly inaccurate claims within the context of the scientific method, this indispensable supplementary text demonstrates how science approaches questions about human antiquity and, in doing so, shows where pseudoscience falls short.
Incorporates the latest discoveries and theories from archaeology, genetics, history, and linguistics to paint a spirited history of European settlementWho are the Europeans and where did they come from? In recent years scientific advances have released a mass of data, turning cherished ideas upside down. The idea of migration in prehistory, so long out of favor, is back on the agenda. New advances allow us to track human movement and the spread of crops, animals, and disease, and we can see the evidence of population crashes and rises, both continent-wide and locally.
Some might think that the 27 thousand tons of material launched by earthlings into outer space is nothing more than floating piles of debris. However, when looking at these artifacts through the eyes of historians and anthropologists, instead of celestial pollution, they are seen as links to human history and heritage.
This book provides an introduction to the Mediterranean world in which the early Christian apostles moved. Drawing on the geographic setting and available archaeological materials to create a sense of the contemporary environment, the book traces the 15,000 mile travels of Paul, whose world was also the world of Peter, John, and many other early Christians. The author presents a complete chronology for the major apostles based on his integration of existing histories, literary accounts, and archaeological information with new discoveries and new theories on dating New Testament events and documents.
Think of a souvenir from a foreign trip, or an heirloom passed down the generations – distinctive individual artefacts allow us to think and act beyond the proximate, across both space and time. While this makes anecdotal sense, what does scholarship have to say about the role of artefacts in human thought? Surprisingly, material culture research tends also to focus on individual artefacts. But objects rarely stand independently from one another they are interconnected in complex constellations.
Geometric’ is the term describing the linear decoration of fine pottery made by the Greeks from c. 900 to 700 BC, a period which saw the dawn of Hellenic civilisation. This age, one of the most creative in Greek history, witnessed the compostion of the Homeric poems, the invention of the Greek alphabet, and the establishment of the great pan-hellenic sanctuaries of Olympia and Delphi. Geometric pottery, a leading art of its day, is no less creative in spirit. It is of special importance for the historians of early Greece, being plentiful enough to establish a workable chronology for a period when there are no contemporary written documents.
Of Stones and Man explores the many errors of judgement made by civilizations both ancient and modern across the world. Arrogance and a penchant for excess drove mankind to build ever greater and more ambitious edifices. The author analyzes these works from a scientific and historically-sensitive perspective, highlighting the hydro-geological background to repeated infamous disasters, from the faults inherent in the Sphinx to the leaning Tower of Pisa. Beautifully illustrated throughout, Of Stones and Man is a testament to the impermanence of our surroundings.
This manual provides a unique ‘user guide’ to practicing archaeology and working in the cultural heritage sector within the diverse settings of Great Britain, comprising of: England, Scotland, Wales, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. As part of their training, archaeologists often seek work in parts of Britain, either for experience before travelling elsewhere, or directly as part of their career progression. While this does involve reading published material on excavation techniques, archaeological theory, and specific heritage management practices, or research using the Internet, the ideal preparation to working in Britain for the first time requires practitioners to know a little about a lot.
New perspectives are provided on late antique cults, popular entertainment, and the decoration of Christian churches through a fresh look at Christian writings, popular ceramics, and elite works of mosaic, metalwork, and marble sculpture.
The classic opening scene of 2001, A Space Odyssey shows an ape-man wreaking havoc with humanity’s first invention–a bone used as a weapon to kill a rival. It’s an image that fits well with popular notions of our species as inherently violent, with the idea that humans are–and always have been–warlike by nature. But as Douglas P. Fry convincingly argues in Beyond War, the facts show that our ancient ancestors were not innately warlike–and neither are we.Fry points out that, for perhaps ninety-nine percent of our history, for well over a million years, humans lived in nomadic hunter-and-gatherer groups, egalitarian bands where generosity was highly valued and warfare was a rarity.
The Yellow River valley of China, during the period ca. 7000-1500, saw the transformation of egalitarian societies into stratified chiefdoms giving rise to early states. This book examines that transformation, emphasising the interplay of many factors affecting these processes, such as climatic fluctuation, population movements, inter-group competition, warfare, and long-distance exchange of valuables. This book contains detailed archaeological data and general theoretical paradigms. It offers a comprehensive reconstruction of developmental trajectories toward social complexity during the Neolithic period, and locates prehistoric China within a global framework of social evolution.
Eight thousand years ago, when the sea cut Britain off from the rest of the Continent, the island’s fauna was very different: most of the animals familiar to us today were not present, whilst others, now extinct, were abundant. Over the course of millennia humans have manipulated Britain’s fauna. For reasons of fear, suspicion, desire, or simply inadvertently, certain species were brought to extinction. In their place new animals were introduced: some transported purposefully by invading populations, others sent as royal gifts from far off lands, whilst several species arrived as stowaways.
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